Within transaction functions it is essential to be able access the ledger state; without this the transaction functions have little purpose.

The model in the Rust Contract API is based on the prototype Java & Node Ledger APIs.

Note this guide is assuming a basic understanding of Fabric concepts.

Conceptual Model

Each transaction function that is run takes place within a transaction context. Within this context you can access the ledger (called the ‘World State’) or any private data collection. Data can be retrieved, updated, verified and the endorsment policies per state can be modified. You can also find out information about the submitter of the transaction to validate who or what entity has initiated the transactions. This guide will focus on the Ledger aspects.

Ledger Access


The starting point of the ledger access is choosing whether to access the World State or one of the Private Data Collections (either explicitly defined ones, or the implict organizational collections).

For example for World State:

  // get the collection that is backed by the world state
  let world = Ledger::access_ledger().get_collection(CollectionName::World);

Though at a low-level there are fundamental differences between the private data collections and world state, at the Contract level it is better to focus on the commonality of the operations. A collection provides access to states via a key. As well as the key, each state holds data. The format of which is not important to Peer, but is understandable by the contract. As with the original ‘shim’ API, your contract can still work with states as being a key - bytebuffer pair. But they can also handle more complex type and move to one side the serialization logic. This helps focus on the business logic to code rather than pure data handling.

  • confirm the hash of a state
  • change the endorsement policy

CRUD Operations

The collections support the following ‘crud’ style operations.

  • create a new state
  • update a state
  • delete a state
  • retrieve a state
  • check a state exists

There are two style of CRUD operations, one that take the data as a BLOB (via a Vec<u8>) and one that uses generics and accepts types that implement the DataType trait. (Note that this includes the essential types, as the DataType trait has been implemented for String and the primitve number types).

BLOB apis

These apis, take a String as the key, and a Vec<u8> for the data either as an argument or a return value. Note the key should be the complete key - no processing is done it.

Datatype apis

These apis, will take or return something that implements the DataType trait. Note that the trait itself will calculate the key.

Typicaly these would be the APIs that primarily used, but when the contract wants to interact with the state-based endorsement for example access to the State object is needed.

Query states

Key range based queries are currently supported. Use the get_states api on the collection. This takes a KeyQueryHandler enum that defines the type of the query, defined as follows

pub enum KeyQueryHandler {
    /// Range(string,string) The start and end keys  
    Range(String, String),

    /// RangeFrom(string)    From the given key to the end

    /// RangeTo(string)      From the start to the given key

    /// RangeAll(),  All composite keys. use with caution

Note these are the raw keys; TODO: Improve handling here for datatypes. A complete example would be

    pub fn transfer_asset_by_color(&self,color: String, new_owner: String)-> Result<(),ContractError>{

        let world = Ledger::access_ledger().get_collection(CollectionName::World);     
        let index_key = State::make_composite_key(INDEX_NAME.into(), vec![color]);
        let states = world.get_states(KeyQueryHandler::RangeFrom(index_key))?;
        for s in states {
            let key = State::split_composite_key(s.key()).remove(1);            
            self.transfer_asset(key, new_owner.clone())?;


This uses the raw key.

DataType trait

Consider the struct

pub struct Asset {
  id: String,
  details: String

To use this as a DataType do the following

1 - Recommend to implement add #[derive(Serialize, Deserialize, Debug, Default)] 2 - Impelment impl DataType for Asset {..} 3 - Implement impl WireBufferFromReturnType<Asset> for WireBuffer { .. } 4 - Implement impl From<&WireBuffer> for Asset {..}

TODO: Macro-ize these

Transaction Access

This is a set of APIs that let the contract implementation find details of the submitter of the transaction.


To get the current transaction ID and timestampe

   let tx = fabric_contract::blockchain::TransactionContext::current_transaction();
   let client_msp = tx.get_submitting_identity()?.get_mspid();

   let id = tx.get_id();
   let timestamp = tx.get_timestamp();